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What is Brightness?
What is Bulk?
What is Dimensional Stability?
What is Formation?
What is Moisture?
What is Opacity?
What is Smoothness?
What are the various usage of paper?

What is Brightness?
Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to emit or reflect a given amount of light. It is a gauge of how well the lignin component of paper has been removed from the paper pulp and a means with which to measure the age of the paper. It is expressed as a percentage of the reflectance of blue light at a wavelength of 457 nm. The brightness of a piece of paper is typically expressed on a scale of 1 to 100 with 100 being the brightest. Papers with large amounts of residual lignin will have lower brightness. 

What is Bulk?
Bulk is a term used to indicate the thickness of paper in relation to its weight. 

What is Dimensional Stability?
Dimensional Stability is the ability of paper to retain its shape when subjected to varying degrees of temperature, moisture, pressure, or other stress. For example, the rate of absorption and de-absorption of moisture by paper affects its print quality. All papers expand with increased moisture content and contract with decreased moisture content and the extent of this change will vary from paper to paper. 

What is Formation?
Formation describes the distribution of fibres and fillers across a sheet of paper. It is one of the most important parameters which effect other properties like Calibre, Opacity, Strength and Printing properties. For example, a floccy paper formation is caused by a non-uniform distribution of fibres in the paper, and in the extreme, this can result in poor, uneven printing and calligraphic reproduction. 

What is Moisture?
Moisture is the amount of water present in the paper which is usually expressed as a percentage. Paper is made from a water suspension, or slurry, of fibres normally ranging in concentration or consistency from 0.5 to 1.0% solids. The thicker the slurry, the heavier will be the basis weight, or grammage, of the sheet of paper. Hence, the moisture content is important in calendaring, printing and converting. 

What is Opacity?
Opacity is an attribute of how much light is kept away from passing through the sheet. It is an important parameter for printing paper and books. 

What is Smoothness?
Smoothness is an attribute of the paperís surafce. It is important for writing as it affects the ease with which a pen can travel over the paperís surface.

What are the various usage of Paper:

  1. Agriculture
    Sacks, seed packets, etc.

  2. Building
    Wallpaper, damp-proof courses, roofing, flooring, flame resistant papers, plasterboard, decorative laminates for furniture, etc.

  3. Business
    Computer tapes, print out sheets, advertisements, circulars, cataloguers, filing systems, sales and service manuals, branches and shop till paper, etc.

  4. Car
    Fascia boards, door and roof liners, filters, the Highway Code, etc.

  5. Communications
    Writing, typing, printing, envelopes, publishing, accounts, receipts, stamps, newspapers, magazines, greeting cards, calendars, diaries, telephone directories, etc.

  6. Domestic products
    Wrappings and boxes for cleaning materials, domestic tissues, paper plates and cups, kitchen towels, table napkins and lampshades, etc.

  7. Education
    Exercise books, instruction books, maps, wallcharts, report cards, etc.

  8. Electrical
    Special insulating boards, electrolytic condenser paper, wrapping and identification for electrical cables, printed circuits, battery separators, etc.

  9. Entertainment (sport)
    Menu cards, paper hats, crackers, fireworks, programmes, playing cards, board games, football coupons, kites, model aircraft, race cards, etc.

  10. Filtration
    Filters for water, air, coffee, medicine, beer, oil and for mechanical uses, etc.

  11. Food packaging
    Wrapping bread, flour, tea, sugar, butter, margarine, sweets, etc; milk cartons, deep freeze food, egg boxes, foil wrappings, tea bags, sausage skins, etc.

  12. Identification
    Gummed labels, identity cards, tamper-proof labels for supermarkets, etc.

  13. Impregnated papers
    Polishing, waxing, cleaning, etc.

  14. Industry
    Presentation, wrapping, packaging and protection for all manufactured gods, transfer sheets for decorating chinaware, etc.

  15. Medical
    Wrapping to keep instruments and equipment sterilised, bandages, first aid bands, clothing for nurses, face masks, surgeonsí caps, disposable bed pans, sheets, pillowcases, etc.

  16. Money
    Finance and security. For example, money, insurance forms, cheque books, travellersí cheques, postal orders, stamps, cash bags, papers that contain special markings which are only visible when subjected to ultra-violet light, etc.

  17. Office papers
    Duplicating and photocopying paper, graph papers, paper twine and string, blotting paper, carbonless paper, box files and folders.

  18. Personal
    Facial and toilet tissue, towels, disposable napkins, sanitary products, tableware, sheets, disposable nappies, confetti, carrier bags, gift wrapping, etc.

  19. Photographic
    Films, Photographs, enlargements, mountings, lens cleaners, etc.

  20. Protective Papers
    Grease and corrosion resistant products, compact disk and record sleeves, etc.

  21. Records: Recording
    Legal documents, birth, marriage and death certificates, wills, history, scientific data, etc.

  22. Travel
    Tickets, passports, maps, charts, luggage labels, timetables, fibre for suitcases, etc.

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